Животные, Растения


Conversion is considered to be the predominant method of English word-formation. The main reason for the widespread development of conversion is no doubt the absence of morphemes signalling the part of speech.

Conversion is the process of coining a new word without adding any derivative element.

According to their structure

Classification of compounds

According to the way components are joined together

Neutral two stems are joined together without connecting elements honey-moon, fifty-five,
to window-shop, brain-drain
Morphological Components are joined by a linking element astro-space, handi-craft(ремесло, ручная работа),sportsman
Syntactical Components are joined by a preposition or conjunction here-and-there, free-for-all, do-or-die (общедоступный)
Compounds proper Consist of two stems To job-hunt, train-sick, go-go (a type of dancing performed to pop music in pubs and clubs by young women wearing very few clothes),
Affixed compounds Besides the stems there are affixes honey-mooner, chain-smoker
Compounds consisting of three or more stems Cornflower-blue, eggshell-thin, wastepaper-basket
Compound-shortened words One of the stems or sometimes both are shortened V-day, Xmas, Eurodollar, intervision, Skylab, AIDSophobia, Centcom (Central Command),

Semi – affixes

There are words in the English vocabulary which occur as independent nouns but at the same time are very frequently used as second elements of compounds:

e.g. man: seaman, policeman, gentleman, yes-man

berry: gooseberry, cranberry, strawberry

land: motherland, homeland

-like (godlike, ladylike, manlike, business-like, suchlike)

-proof (waterproof, foolproof, shockproof, kiss proof (about a lipstick))

-worthy (noteworthy, untrustworthy)

-wise=like (crabwise, ostrich-wise, otherwise, likewise, clockwise, crosswise.


e.g. His voice silenced everybody.

e.g. back (N- спина, V - to back – поддерживать, субсидировать, A- задний:back entrance, отдаленный back street, Adv – назад, обратно)

home (N - дом, жилище,V- возвращаться домой,A- домашний, Adv –домой.)

round ( N- раунд, V-to round- округлять A- круглый, Adv- вокруг)


N > V: to eye- наблюдать, to finger - трогать, перебирать пальцами, to hand - передать, вручить, to elbow – толкать локтями, to hammer – забивать молотком, to knife – резать ножом, to pocket –присвоить, прикарманить, to chair - председательствовать, to star- играть главную роль, to screen (экранизировать)

V > N (Deverbal nouns) A bore, a tease, a cut, drive, stand, walk.

This is the way of word formation when some sounds are changed to form a new word. It is not productive in Modern English.

E.g. To sing – a song, hot – to heat, bath – to bathe, breath – to breathe.


It is known in the English language since the 15th c. It has grown more and more productive ever since.

e.g. fridge (refrigerator)

mike (microphone)

telly (television)

trank (tranquilizer)


Blends are formations that combine two words. The first constituent of a blend is a stem with the final part missing, and the second constituent is a stem with the initial part missing. Sometimes this way of word formation is called telescoping.

e.g. snob (sin nobilite)

bit (binary digit)

smog (smoke + frog)

Blends seem to be on the rise, especially in trade advertisements.


It can be mostly met in verbs and nouns of Romanic origin: nouns have the stress on the first syllable and verbs on the last syllable.

E.g. ‘conduct- to con’duct, ‘produce – to pro’duce, ‘conflict – to con’flict, ‘progress – to pro’gress,’ increase – to in’crease,’record – to re’cord, ‘export – to ex’port, ‘transport – to trans’port.


This is the naming of an action or thing by a reproduction of a sound associated with it.

E. g. words naming sounds and movement of water are: to babble- журчать, to flush – хлынуть, to gurgle - булькать, to splash – плескать.

The majority of onomatopoeic words serve to name sounds or movements. Most of them a re verbs easily turned into nouns: E.g. bump( удариться) , hum( жужжать), rustle ( шуршать).

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