Conversion is considered to be the predominant method of English word-formation. The main reason for the widespread development of conversion is no doubt the absence of morphemes signalling the part of speech.
Conversion is the process of coining a new word without adding any derivative element.
According to their structure
Classification of compounds
According to the way components are joined together
|Neutral||two stems are joined together without connecting elements|| honey-moon, fifty-five,
to window-shop, brain-drain
|Morphological||Components are joined by a linking element||astro-space, handi-craft(ремесло, ручная работа),sportsman|
|Syntactical||Components are joined by a preposition or conjunction||here-and-there, free-for-all, do-or-die (общедоступный)|
|Compounds proper||Consist of two stems||To job-hunt, train-sick, go-go (a type of dancing performed to pop music in pubs and clubs by young women wearing very few clothes),|
|Affixed compounds||Besides the stems there are affixes||honey-mooner, chain-smoker|
|Compounds consisting of three or more stems||Cornflower-blue, eggshell-thin, wastepaper-basket|
|Compound-shortened words||One of the stems or sometimes both are shortened||V-day, Xmas, Eurodollar, intervision, Skylab, AIDSophobia, Centcom (Central Command),|
Semi – affixes
There are words in the English vocabulary which occur as independent nouns but at the same time are very frequently used as second elements of compounds:
e.g. man: seaman, policeman, gentleman, yes-man
berry: gooseberry, cranberry, strawberry
land: motherland, homeland
-like (godlike, ladylike, manlike, business-like, suchlike)
-proof (waterproof, foolproof, shockproof, kiss proof (about a lipstick))
-worthy (noteworthy, untrustworthy)
-wise=like (crabwise, ostrich-wise, otherwise, likewise, clockwise, crosswise.
e.g. His voice silenced everybody.
e.g. back (N- спина, V - to back – поддерживать, субсидировать, A- задний:back entrance, отдаленный back street, Adv – назад, обратно)
home (N - дом, жилище,V- возвращаться домой,A- домашний, Adv –домой.)
round ( N- раунд, V-to round- округлять A- круглый, Adv- вокруг)
N > V: to eye- наблюдать, to finger - трогать, перебирать пальцами, to hand - передать, вручить, to elbow – толкать локтями, to hammer – забивать молотком, to knife – резать ножом, to pocket –присвоить, прикарманить, to chair - председательствовать, to star- играть главную роль, to screen (экранизировать)
V > N (Deverbal nouns) A bore, a tease, a cut, drive, stand, walk.
This is the way of word formation when some sounds are changed to form a new word. It is not productive in Modern English.
E.g. To sing – a song, hot – to heat, bath – to bathe, breath – to breathe.
5. SHORTENING / CLIPPING
It is known in the English language since the 15th c. It has grown more and more productive ever since.
e.g. fridge (refrigerator)
6. BLENDING / FUSION
Blends are formations that combine two words. The first constituent of a blend is a stem with the final part missing, and the second constituent is a stem with the initial part missing. Sometimes this way of word formation is called telescoping.
e.g. snob (sin nobilite)
bit (binary digit)
smog (smoke + frog)
Blends seem to be on the rise, especially in trade advertisements.
7. DISTINCTIVE STRESS / STRESS INTERCHANGE
It can be mostly met in verbs and nouns of Romanic origin: nouns have the stress on the first syllable and verbs on the last syllable.
E.g. ‘conduct- to con’duct, ‘produce – to pro’duce, ‘conflict – to con’flict, ‘progress – to pro’gress,’ increase – to in’crease,’record – to re’cord, ‘export – to ex’port, ‘transport – to trans’port.
8. SOUND IMITATION / ONOMATOPOEIA
This is the naming of an action or thing by a reproduction of a sound associated with it.
E. g. words naming sounds and movement of water are: to babble- журчать, to flush – хлынуть, to gurgle - булькать, to splash – плескать.
The majority of onomatopoeic words serve to name sounds or movements. Most of them a re verbs easily turned into nouns: E.g. bump( удариться) , hum( жужжать), rustle ( шуршать).